Why does a laser cutting machine cut a circular hole that is not round?


The working principle of a laser cutting machine is to irradiate the material surface with a high-energy laser beam, causing the material to quickly melt, evaporate, or reach the ignition point. At the same time, high-speed airflow blows away the melted or burned material, thereby achieving cutting. In this process, the accuracy and stability of the laser beam have a crucial impact on the cutting quality.

Firstly, the quality of the laser beam is an important factor affecting the cutting roundness. The quality of the laser beam is influenced by various factors such as the performance of the laser itself, the cleanliness of optical components, and the adjustment of the optical path. If the laser beam has problems such as astigmatism and beam instability, it will result in the cut circular holes not being round enough.

Secondly, the characteristics of the material can also have an impact on the cutting roundness. Different materials have varying absorption, reflectivity, and thermal conductivity of lasers, which directly affect the cutting effect. For example, certain metal materials are prone to thermal deformation under laser irradiation, resulting in distorted shape of the cut circular holes.

In addition, the setting of cutting parameters is also a key factor affecting the roundness of cutting. The setting of parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, and auxiliary gas pressure needs to be optimized based on the characteristics of the material and cutting requirements. If the parameters are not set properly, it can lead to unsatisfactory cutting results and the occurrence of non circular circular holes. 

Laser Cutting Machine

So, how to solve the problem of laser cutting machines cutting non circular holes?

1. Regularly inspect and maintain the laser cutting machine to ensure stable performance of the laser, clean and pollution-free optical components, and accurate adjustment of the optical path.

2. Select appropriate cutting parameters based on the characteristics of the material, including laser power, cutting speed, and auxiliary gas pressure, to ensure stability and accuracy during the cutting process.

3.During the cutting process, the thermal deformation of the material can be reduced by adding auxiliary supports or using fixtures, thereby improving the cutting roundness.

4.For some laser sensitive materials, other cutting methods such as mechanical cutting or water cutting can be attempted to avoid the thermal effects caused by laser cutting.

In summary, the problem of non circular holes being cut by laser cutting machines is the result of multiple factors working together. To solve this problem, it is necessary to comprehensively consider and optimize multiple aspects such as laser beam quality, material characteristics, and cutting parameter settings. Only in this way can we ensure that the laser cutting machine achieves the ideal cutting effect during the round hole cutting process.

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